Curricula Guides

Uusi opinto-opas (sisältäen myös opetusohjelmat) lukuvuodelle 2018-2019 sijaitsee osoitteessa . Tältä sivustolta löytyvät enää vanhat opinto-oppaat ja opetusohjelmat.

The new study guide (incl. teaching schedules) for academic year 2018-2019 can be found at This site contains only previous years' guides.

x !
Archived Curricula Guide 2016–2018
Curricula Guide is archieved. Please refer to current Curricula Guides
Advanced studies, 60 ECTS


- Literature 8 ECTS
- Seminar work 12 ECTS
- Master's thesis (approximately 70-100 p.) 40 ECTS



Grading of a thesis

General factors affecting the grading of the thesis:

Content of the thesis (most important)
- General quality, coherence, profundity and accuracy of the text
- Phrasing of questions and outlining of task
- Overall structure and disposition of information
- New information produced in the thesis
- Grading of the theses is not completely commensurable and instead takes in consideration the difficult of the chosen topic

Manner of presentation in the thesis (important)
- Amount, selection and usage of source material
- Usage of legal methods
- Writing style and references to the source material
- Linguistic form of the thesis (certain standard level is requirement for approval)
- Fluency and style of language use
- Good, formal English

Length of the thesis (usually has an effect only if deviates from the recommendation of 70 to 100 pages)
- Falling notably short of the recommended length may lead to rejection of the thesis
- Falling slightly short of the recommended length may lower the grade
- Exceeding the recommended length may lower the grade if the quality of text is also poor
- The impact of exceeding or falling short of the recommended length is always evaluated in relation to the difficulty of the chosen topic

Layout of the thesis (usually has effect only if the thesis contains severe flaws)
- Clarity of text
- Proper margins etc.

Factors taken into consideration in grading

The basis for the distribution of grades is that average grades are cum laude approbatur, non sine approbatur below it and magna cum laude approbatur above it. In other faculties and departments, approximately four out of five theses are given a grade which falls into one of these three categories.
Grades lower (lubenter approbatur and approbatur) and higher (eximia cum laude approbatur and laudatur) to the ones mentioned above are given in total to one third of the theses.
It is recommended not to use any unequivocal percentages. The fields of study in the advanced studies are too small for a set distribution of grades. In addition, the quality of theses can vary greatly between the groups studying different fields.

- The research topic is important and clearly more challenging than usual, and it has been chosen independently.
- The thesis clearly demonstrates its importance in regards to the field of law in question and other fields of law related to the research topic.
- Knowledge about theories, previous research and important practical problems is very good and relevant.
- The starting points of the research have been skilfully presented and justified, and they demonstrate a critical and innovative approach to research.
- The sources are discussed in a profound manner. The author has successfully used and evaluated legal methodology independently.
- Argumentation is diverse and skilfully takes various issues into consideration, which demonstrates a good skill in familiarising with, analysing, carrying out and reporting research.
- The thesis can be published in its current or abridged form in a series of scientific publications or a journal related to the field.
- The use of language produces stylistically good, scientific text. The layout is flawless.

Eximia cum laude approbatur
- The research theme has been chosen independently, and the research has been carried out in a logical manner.
- The research shows the author's profound familiarity with the theory, methodological problems and conventions of his or her field of research.
- The research expresses an independent, critical and innovative approach to research, skill for analysing theoretically and practically vast complexes of issues and problems, and a skill for carrying out even demanding research tasks in order to solve the skilfully presented problems.
- Independent reflection and vision as well as new information have been obtained at least on two sections of the research process. The quality of legal argumentation is high. The sources barely have any flaws.
- The thesis can be published in a law journal after some editing.
- The use of language is clear and accurate. The layout is almost flawless.

Magna cum laude approbatur
- The author has striven to identify and develop the ensemble of research problems in a manner which is independent, clearly "distant" and scientific. The research tasks and problems have been precisely outlined in proportion with the presented research background.
- The theoretical and methodical framework as well as the starting points of the research show a good level of knowledge about legal research in general and especially within the frames of the author's own research problem.
- Structure is clear and systematic, and it shows versatile command of the research task.
- The choice of sources expresses an internalised and critical approach to research. The documentation corresponds to predominant scientific conventions.
- The presentation and evaluation of results are logical, independent and well-argued. The research clearly produces new information on its field.
- Language is disciplined, accurate, well-spoken and rigorous enough. There are hardly any mistakes in the layout.

Cum laude approbatur
- Throughout research has been carried out on the background of the research, which demonstrates a good level of knowledgeabout previous research.
- Chosen sources are relevant to the research problems. The theoretical framework and the research task or problems of the research have been impeccably explained.
- The quality of conclusions and argumentation is good. The research clearly strives to produce new information. The results have been put in proportion with previous knowledge.
- The results are examined in a critical and balanced manner.
- The language and layout of the research are almost flawless.

Non sine laude approbatur
- The starting points, tasks and problems of the research have been reflected on, and an attempt has been made to place them into the field of previous legal research although without clear success. Some research tasks and problems are only loosely connected to the background.
- Previous research about the topic has been discussed but overall in a mechanical and list-like manner.
- All chosen source material is not relevant or up-to-date, and some essential source may be missing. Nevertheless, the sources are mainly adequate.
- The results are presented in a trustworthy although stereotypical manner. Critical inspection is incomplete or completely missing.
- Language and layout are adequate on a general level although the text structure still has slight flaws.

Lubenter approbatur
- The quality of work is satisfactory, but some noteworthy flaw lowers the grade.
- The starting point, the phrasing of questions or the development of research is poor, which usually means that the research is too narrow and one-sided or too vast.
- Links to former research remain unclear.
- There are too few sources and they are only loosely connected to the research problem.
- Some conclusions are being drawn, but they are flawed and have slight discrepancies. Discussion is meagre.
- There are some discrepancies and flaws in language and layout.

- Command of some part of the topic is always required for the approval of thesis.
- The starting point, purpose and terminology of the research remain vague.
- There are too few sources and they are haphazard and one-sided. They have been mainly selected from textbooks or drafting documents related to the field. "Difficult" sources are neglected or belittled.
- No distance is taken from the sources, and instead they are presented by summarising them on a superficial level.
- Results have been presented as a list and on superficial level without commentaries. Discussion is either nonexistent or unrelated to the topic of the thesis.
- Documentation is inadequate, but there is no real plagiarism.
- Linguistic form of the thesis is weak.

Improbatur (must be returned for rewriting, not officially rejected)
- Glaring misunderstandings which prove that the author has not understood his or her topic at all.
- Incoherence, conflicted statements about a single topic or disregard for important facts
- Substantial flaws in argumentation.
- Sources followed slavishly. Their content is repeated without criticism or proper reference.
- Fraud or comparable practice, such as source plagiarism.

Further information


The Bachelors of Laws, Masters of Laws, Master of International and Comparative Law who graduate from the faculty (and also the Licentiates of Laws and Doctors of Laws who have finished their postgraduate studies) will receive a diploma for the degree they have completed from the Faculty Office.
Any issues related to graduation should be primarily directed to oik-valmistuminen(@) two weeks prior to the graduation date at latest. The graduating student should submit a notice for courses he or she wishes to include in the degree. The student has to personally make sure that he or she has registered as an attending student at the university.

Maturity test

The student must take a written maturity test after he or she has returned his or her thesis to the teacher responsible for the chosen specialisation. The student and the teacher will agree on a date for the maturity test. The content of the thesis and the maturity test will be evaluated by the teacher responsible for the chosen specialisation and the teacher in charge of the field of study in question. The dean can also nominate another teacher to act as an examiner if needed for a cogent reason.
The thesis will be graded on the following scale: approbatur, lubenter approbatur, non sine laude approbatur, cum laude approbatur, magna cum laude approbatur, eximia cum laude approbatur or laudatur (cf. Grading system for theses).
The examiners will submit a written statement about the thesis and the maturity test.
The statement will be delivered to the student. See "Student's legal protection" for further information.
Please see Maturity test instuctions by Language Centre.

Plagiarism Detection in Master's thesis

Since 1 August 2013 all theses at Bachelor's and Master's degrees at the University of Turku undergo an electronic originality check, using the plagiarism detection system. The supervisor of the thesis is responsible of the originality check.
The Turnitin system used in plagiarism detection works as an additional function integrated into the University of Turku Moodle learning platform: it is used through Moodle and with Moodle document management routines. Student submits his/her thesis to the Turnitin system according to the instructions given by the thesis supervisor. Electronic originality check is part of the thesis supervision and should be done before the permission to have the thesis bound up is given. The supervisor is responsible for interpreting the results of the originality check.
There will be the following control mark on the thesis about the originality check:
The originality of this thesis has been checked in accordance with the University of Turku quality assurance system using the Turnitin OriginalityCheck service.
A student will add this marking to the bottom of the title page after the supervisor has confirmed that the originality check has been approved. The supervisor will submit a certificate of approved originality check to the office of the department/unit.
More information on electronic originality check at fairUTU-pages.

Approval of thesis

The thesis will be accepted by the dean. After the dean's decision, the thesis will be registered in the study register.


The student must deliver four copies of the thesis for examination, and two of the copies should be bound between wine red covers with the author's name and publication year on the spine of the book. A summary pages should be included after the title page in each copy. The purpose of the summary is to give a synopsis of the contents of the thesis to those who are interested. Templates for the summary page are available at the faculty web site.

One bound and one unbound copy of the thesis should be delivered to the teacher responsible for the chosen specialisation. One bound and one unbound copy as well as two separate summary pages should be delivered to the Office Secretary. One unbound copy will be delivered to the Court of Appeal of Turku through official channels.
The student will receive a diploma for completing the Master's degree. The studies included in the degree will be shown in the transcript of study records, which will be attached to the diploma.


Notification for courses to be included in the diploma

A completed Master of International and Comparative Laws degree / Master of Laws degree must amount to at least 120 credits (ECTS) which will be marked into the degree diploma. The student should keep in mind the degree's scope of 120 credits and try not to exceed it.
The student must fill a 'Notification for the courses to be included in the degree diploma' form to obtain his or her degree diploma. The form can be printed on pdf-file, and copies are also available at the Faculty.

The following should be taken into consideration while filling the forms:

- The student must personally confirm that all the completed studies which he or she wishes to include into the degree have been registered into the study register;
- The student is allowed to take more courses than the minimum requirements and have the extra studies mentioned in his/her transcript.
- If you have completed courses at other faculties in the University of Turku, other universities or the Language Centre of The University of Turku your studies are considered in each case separately.
The graduating students' completed studies will always be confirmed from the study register upon graduation.

Diploma Supplement

The student will receive a free Diploma Supplement in English upon graduation. The Diploma Supplement contains an attachment with information about the Finnish educational system and the contents of the degree which the student has completed at the Faculty of Law.

Belongs to following modules

expand all

Advanced studies

Faculty of Law
Bachelor of Laws
Master of Laws DP
MDP in Law and Information Society
Doctor of Laws
Turku Law School