Uusi opinto-opas (sisältäen myös opetusohjelmat) lukuvuodelle 2018-2019 sijaitsee osoitteessa https://opas.peppi.utu.fi . Tältä sivustolta löytyvät enää vanhat opinto-oppaat ja opetusohjelmat.

The new study guide (incl. teaching schedules) for academic year 2018-2019 can be found at https://studyguide.utu.fi. This site contains only previous years' guides.

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Archived Curricula Guide 2013–2014
Curricula Guide is archieved. Please refer to current Curricula Guides
FFYS7022 Modern low temperatures physics 4 ECTS
Organised by
Person in charge
Kurt Gloos

Learning outcomes

Many physical phenomena like superconductivity, superfluidity, or nuclear magnetic ordering take place only at low temperatures. Because of the low temperatures lattice vibrations are suppressed, which makes it easier to compare theory and experiment of those quantum systems. Thermometry and cooling techniques have developed with time. Nowadays even automatic systems are available (at a price) which require only to push a single button to start a low-temperature experiment without knowing what is really going on. However, as a physicist one should at least try to understand how to reach those low temperatures.

The aim of the course is to get aquainted with material properties at low temperatures, present-day thermometry, and refrigeration methods and their limitations. How one can cool samples to low temperatures, determine the temperature, and measure the properties of the sample. The recent nanotechnological progress with reduced sample sizes offers many new possibilities for materials research, thermometry, as well as refrigeration. This will be a special part of the course.


Material properties at low temperatures: Lattice vibrations, spin systems, magnetic excitations; Superconductors and magnets; Cryoliquids; Thermal conductance; Interfaces

Thermometry: Absolute temperature scale; Primary thermometer; Secondary thermometer.

Refrigeration: Pumped 4He-refrigerator; Closed-cycle refrigeration; Dilution refrigeration; Adiabatic refrigeration of paramagnetic salts; Nuclear emagnetization; Thermal coupling and heat leaks.

Low-temperature applications in nanophysics: Thermal contact to nano-samples; Nanosensors; Microrefrigerators.

Teaching methods

Teaching method Contact Online
Lectures 21 h 0 h
Exercises 7 h 0 h

Teaching language


Modes of study

Option 1
Available for:
  • Degree Programme Students
  • Other Students
  • Doctoral Students
  • Exchange Students
Written exam
  • In English
Written exam

Exercise bonus


Numeric 0-5.

Recommended year of study

4. year autumn
5. year autumn

The course is lectured every second year in period I.

Further information

Not lectured in 2013-2014.

Belongs to following study modules

Department of Physics and Astronomy
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Archived Teaching Schedule. Please refer to current Teaching Shedule.
Implementation details are unavailable.
Department of Physics and Astronomy
DP in Physical Sciences
Finnish Study Modules